Big Mystery: Stone-Tipped Spears Found Predate Existence Of Humans By 85,000 Years (So Who Or What Made Them?)
Stone-tipped spears predate existence of humans by 85,000 years
Remains of the world’s oldest known stone-tipped throwing spears, described in a new paper, and so ancient that they actually predate the earliest known fossils for our species by 85,000 years.
There are a few possible implications, and both are mind-blowing. The first is that our species could be much older than previously thought, which would forever change the existing human family tree.
The second, and more likely at this point, is that a predecessor species to ours was extremely crafty and clever, making sophisticated tools long before Homo sapiens emerged.
Homo heidelbergensis, aka Heidelberg Man, lived in Africa, Europe and western Asia from at least 600,000 years ago. He clearly got around, and many think this species was the direct ancestor ofHomo sapiens in Africa and Neanderthals in Europe and Asia
National GeographicReturn of the NeanderthalsNational GeographicFor now, the Neanderthal genome is an abstract string of billions of DNA letters stored in computer databases. But it naturally sparks the imagination: Could scientists use that genetic
For now, the Neanderthal genome is an abstract string of billions of DNA letters stored in computer databases. But it naturally sparks the imagination: Could scientists use that genetic blueprint to create neo-Neanderthals in the flesh?
In the not-so-distant future, advances in genetic engineering might enable that feat, experts say. But whether such a resurrection should happen is another story.
Since the 1996 birth of Dolly the sheep, the world's first cloned mammal, scientists have greatly expanded and improved on cloning techniques. They have cloned dogs, cats, rats, pigs, and cows, among other species. In 2003, researchers in Spain were the first to bring back an extinct species—the Pyrenean ibex, a wild mountain goat also called a bucardo—though the clone only lived for a few minutes.
Generation of ‘X-Men’ superhumans could become a reality in 30 years thanks to advances in gene science, say MoD experts
- Experts warn of ‘genetic inequality’ if advances are unequally shared
- Report says ‘human augmentation’ is likely to increase over next 30 years
- Details released following a Freedom of Information request
The MoD’s Development Concepts and Doctrine Centre warn however that ‘genetic inequality’ could result from advancements in biology being unequally shared across society.
Mutant: MoD experts have suggested a generation of genetically-modified ‘X-Men’ superhumans, such as Wolverine, could be a reality by 2045
The centre met last summer for a two-day summit, featuring experts from government, industry and universities. The details have been released following a Freedom of Information request by The Sun.
It was reported during the summit, held to predict what would happen in the future, that: ‘Advancements in gene technology could lead to a class of genetically superior humans by 2045.
‘Human augmentation is likely to increase over the next 30 years.
‘Discussions highlighted that it is possible that advances in biology, unequally shared across society, could generate genetic inequality.’
The X-Men are a team of mutant superheroes created by writer Stan Lee and artist Jack Kirby, who first appeared in Marvel Comics in 1963.
The mutants use their powers for the benefit of humanity, despite an ever-growing anti-mutant sentiment among mankind.
The comics were turned into a highly-successful film series, featuring Hugh Jackman as Wolverine, Halle Berry as Storm, Ian McKellan as Magneto and Patrick Stewart as Professor X.
Previously unknown human population boom revealed by DNA: Massive expansion occurred 40,000 years ago
- Scientists guess that baby boom occurred as our ancestors adapted to life away from the coasts
By Damien Gayle
DNA sequencing has revealed a previously unknown human population boom between 40,000 and 50,000 years ago, a new study claims.
The sequencing of the Y chromosomes from 36 men has revealed a ten-fold increase in the number of genetic markers nearly 20,000 years after our ancestors first left Africa.
Scientists believe the expansion could have occurred as our ancestors adapted to more rugged environments, allowing them to spread inland from coastal areas.
Baby boom: New analysis of DNA has revealed a previously unknown human population explosion between 40,000 and 50,000 years ago
‘We have always considered the expansion of humans out of Africa as being the largest population expansion of modern humans, but our research questions this theory,’ said Wei Wei of the West China University of Medical Sciences.
‘The out-of-Africa expansion, which happened approximately 60,000 years ago, was extremely large in geographical terms with humans spreading around the globe.
‘Now we’ve found a second wave of expansion that is much larger in terms of human population growth and occurred over a very short period, somewhere between 40,000 to 50,000 years ago.’
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A paragraph from his book, Regenesis: How Synthetic Biology Will Reinvent Nature and Ourselves,” clarifies his idea. Church explains that genetic engineering gives researchers a way to start with an intact genome of an animal and change it to the genome of another animal. You could start with an elephant’s genome, for example, and change it into that of a mammoth’s.
“The same technique would work for the Neanderthal,” he writes, “except that you’d start with a stem cell genome from a human adult and gradually reverseengineer it into the Neanderthal genome or a reasonably close equivalent. These stem cells can produce tissues and organs. If society becomes comfortable with cloning and sees value in true human diversity, then the whole Neanderthal creature itself could be cloned by a surrogate mother chimp or an extremely adventurous female human.”
And then today on a radio interview with WBUR’s Tom Ashbrook, Church explained it more. Ashbrook also interviewed Arthur Caplan, head of the division of bioethics at New York University and Jay Keasling, director of the Synthetic Biology Engineering Research Center.
Tom asks, What would the potential benefit be?
“It’s very hard to anticipate what the benefits are of the Apollo Moon shot are, for example. We didn’t precisely describe GPS navigation in the streets,” Church says.
“We may be limited, chauvinistic in the way we think about things,” he says.
“Sometimes we want to have alien intelligences to discuss things with and sometimes we don’t. It’s an open question. It depends on safety to the individuals.”
Tom asks, But didn’t Neanderthals go extinct for a reason?
Church makes the point that yes, they did extinct for a variety of reasons, but that doesn’t mean they were week or unintelligent and it also doesn’t mean we can’t learn from them.
You can listen to the full interview: Is Creating New Life — Maybe Even A Neanderthal — Possible?
Credit: Lonely Planet
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Folks residing outside the house Africa discuss as significantly as several for each cent of their DNA with Neanderthals, a cave-dwelling species with muscular small arms and legs and a mind marginally larger than ours.
The Cambridge scientists examined demographic styles suggesting that human beings were far from intimate with the species they displaced in Europe nearly forty,000 many years in the past.
The research into the genomes of the two species, located a frequent ancestor five hundred,000 many years in the past would be adequate to account for the shared DNA.
Their assessment, revealed in the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS), contradicts latest reports that discovered inter-species mating, identified as hybridisation, almost certainly transpired.
Dr Andrea Manica, who led the review, said: “To me the interbreeding question is not whether there was hybridisation but whether there was any hybridisation that afflicted the subsequent evolution of individuals. I assume this is really, quite not likely.
“Our work shows clearly the patterns presently witnessed in the Neanderthal genome are not outstanding, and are in line with our expectations of what we would see with no hybridisation.
“So, if any hybridisation happened then it would have been minimum and considerably less than what individuals are proclaiming now.”
Data has shown that Neanderthals ended up pushed into extinction by humans who have been a lot more efficient at obtaining food and multiplied at a more quickly fee.
A prior review in 2010 suggested that interspecies liaisons near the Middle East resulted in Neanderthal genes initial moving into humans 70,000 a long time in the past.
Contemporary non-Africans reveal more with Neanderthals than Africans, supporting the claim that the mixing happened when the initial earlier humans remaining Africa to populate Europe and Asia.
The existence of a five hundred,000-12 months-old shared ancestor that predates the source of Neanderthals gives a greater rationalization for the genetic mix.
Variety inside this ancestral species intended that northern Africans have been far more genetically similar to their European counterparts than southern Africans through geographic proximity.
This likeness persisted above time to account for the overlap with the Neanderthal genome we see in modern people these days.
Variations in between populations can be described by prevalent ancestry, Dr Manica said.
“The notion is that our African ancestors would not have been a homogeneous, effectively-mixed populace but manufactured of a number of populations in Africa with some degree of differentiation, in the way proper now you can explain to a northern and southern European from their appears,” she mentioned.
âBased on common ancestry and geographic differences amid populations inside of every single continent, we would forecast out of Africa populations to be far more comparable to Neanderthals than their African counterparts â just the patterns that ended up observed when the Neanderthal genome was sequenced, but this routine was attributed to hybridisation.
“Ideally, every person will turn out to be far more careful just before invoking hybridisation, and start off having into account that historic populations differed from every other almost certainly as significantly as present day populations do.â
Northern Africans would be far more comparable to Europeans and ancient similarity stayed due to the fact there wasn’t ample mixing among northern and southern Africans.
Populace diversity, known as substructure, cant make clear info on the shared genes, mentioned David Reich, a professor of genetics at Harvard Health-related College, in Boston who authored the 2010 examine.
We have ruled out the chance that historical substructure can make clear all the proof of higher relatedness of Neanderthals to non-Africans than to Africans, he extra.
Dr Manica stated hybridisation among Neanderthals and people can never ever be disproved completely.
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