The genes, BRCA1 and BRCA2, have been associated with hereditary forms of breast and ovarian cancer. The plaintiffs argue that Myriad Genentics’ patent hinders potentially life-saving cancer research and patient access to diagnostic testing. They are also pushing for the courts to recognize genes as “products of nature” and, therefore, unpatentable.
Conversely, Myriad argues that they do not own the patent on the gene itself; rather, they own the patent on the process for isolating the gene. The company also argues that patents on genes create a financial incentive for companies to fund genetic research.
The plaintiffs include genetic counselors and researchers, patients, cancer and women’s health organizations, and medical professional organizations.
Lisbeth Ceriani, a breast cancer survivor and plaintiff in the case, had to pay Myriad over $4,000 to receive genetic testing to see if her breast cancer was hereditary. “Women should not have to go through what I went through in order to take care of themselves and continue to take care of their families,” said Ceriani. “My genes belong to me. Knowledge about my own body should not be held hostage by a corporation.”
A federal patent court invalidated the patents in 2010. However, the United States Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit (CAFC) has upheld the patent twice, even after they were ordered to reconsider their ruling in light of the Supreme Court’s decision in Prometheus Laboratories v. Mayo Collaborative Services, which held that the patenting of certain medical diagnostics was unconstitutional.
“It’s wrong to think that something as naturally occurring as DNA can be patented by a single company that limits scientific research and the free exchange of ideas,” said Chris Hansen, my personal hero, and staff attorney with the ACLU Speech, Privacy and Technology Project . “The Court of Appeals failed to consider the Supreme Court’s most recent ruling on patent law.”
The basis for patent law in the Constitution lies in Article I, Section 8, which says, “Congress has the power…to promote the progress of science and useful arts, by securing for limited times to authors and inventors the exclusive right to their respective writings and discoveries.” Congress has delegated to the federal patent courts the responsibility to implement this power.
Categories: Uncategorized Tags: Complete Genomics Initial Public Offering, debate, decide, DNA sequencing platform, genes, genome, genome-based research, human, Human Genome, owns, scotus, sequencing technology, to, who, whole genome amplification, your
Here is the definition taken from the Human Genome Project, “A genome is the complete collection of an organism’s genetic material. The human genome is composed of about 20,000 to 25,000 genes located on the 23 pairs of chromosomes in a human cell.
A single human chromosome may contain more than 250 million DNA base pairs, and scientists estimate that the entire human genome consists of about 3 billion base pairs.
In the past eighteen months, scientists discovered more than 100 genetic variations that affect older people, such as: type 2 diabetes, asthma, Alzheimer’s disease, osteoporosis, high blood pressure and heart disease.
Genetic science is moving so fast that people now in their 60′s-80′s will see medical innovations that will touch their lives.
Francis Collins, MD, a leader in the Project, was astounded to see the huge amount of information derived from the genome, particularly in regards to older people.
As an example he cited age-related Macular degeneration, an eye disease troubling almost 2 million, visually impaired Americans. “Using new genomic tools we’ve discovered two genes that account for about 60% of the risk- the rest is smoking. But we were surprised. These genes are involved in inflammation, and everybody was thinking macular degeneration was caused by aging in the back of the eye.”
Macular degeneration tests are now being made using anti-inflammatory drugs, a complete change in the way it was formerly viewed.
Many scientists believe that the Human Genome Project has the potential to revolutionize both therapeutic and preventive medicine by providing insights into the basic biochemical processes that underlie many human diseases.
Categories: Uncategorized Tags: bioinformatics, cancer research, cancer sequencing, CGA Platform, Complete Genomics Analysis Platform, Complete Genomics Initial Public Offering, Complete Genomics IPO, DNA, DNA sequencing platform, dna sequencing services, genome biology, genome research, genome sequencing, genome sequencing technology, genome-based research, human dna sequencing, Human Genome, human genome research, human genome sequencing, human genome sequencing science, sequencing technology, whole genome amplification, whole genome sequencing
It was once thought that the human genome would never be completely mapped out because it was much too complex. The human genome project found that, while complex, human genomes are not as complex as some very undistinguished creatures such as the roundworm and fruit fly.
Nevertheless the breakthrough was enormous and caused an incredible stir among scientists and researchers worldwide, opening doors to research about humans that had never before been seen.
At the center of the breakthrough was Complete Genomics, a California research facility that caused the stir when it announced in 2009 that it had sequenced its first human genome. When they had finished it they submitted the data to the National Center for Biotechnology Information and scientists the world over clamored to see it.
Today Complete Genomics is a full-service life-sciences company. The DNA sequencing platform that they developed is used by researchers around the globe to analyze and sequence human genomes using their proprietary and data management software and their informatics.
When a researcher anywhere in the world needs a genome to be sequenced they send it to Complete Genomics for analysis in Mountain View, California. After sequencing the assembled sequences and variant reports are published and sent back to the various researchers who order them.
The proprietary software that Complete Genomics uses is adjusted for the study of human DNA exclusively, and they can provide researchers with genome variation files and also assembled sequences.
Today there are various research papers that have been submitted using the results found at Complete Genomics. For example, their research was responsible for finding which gene was responsible for Miller Syndrome, a rare craniofacial disorder that had struck 1 member of a family of four.
It’s an amazing time to be alive, to be sure, and Complete Genomics is at the forefront of amazing changes that will soon be taking place that only years ago were hard to even imagine. Their technology will ultimately allow researchers to help find and, possibly, cure many diseases that afflict mankind.
Categories: Complete Genomics Tags: bioinformatics, cancer research, cancer sequencing, CGA Platform, Complete Genomics Analysis Platform, Complete Genomics Initial Public Offering, Complete Genomics IPO, DNA sequencing platform, dna sequencing services, genome biology, genome research, genome-based research, human dna sequencing, Human Genome, human genome research, human genome sequencing, human genome sequencing science, sequencing technology, whole genome amplification, whole genome sequencing